What are the 3 types of hyperpigmentation and how to treat them?
Hyperpigmentation of the skin comes from an overproduction of melanin. It manifests itself in various ways depending on the person and their complexion. On Nubian skin, it is common to see this type of skin condition due to the high level of melanin . In this article, we describe the three types of hyperpigmentation and the solutions that exist to treat them.
The causes of hyperpigmentation
Hyperpigmentation is a reaction characterized by an increase in melanin in certain areas of the skin.
This overproduction of melanin comes from many internal factors: age, hormonal changes, and genetic predispositions. It also comes from external factors: excessive exposure to the sun, irritations and the use of unsuitable cosmetic products.
The 3 types of skin hyperpigmentation
The pregnancy mask
Also called melasma or chloasma, this phenomenon of hyperpigmentation comes from hormonal changes. The pregnancy mask affects 10 to 15% of pregnant women. It is characterized by the manifestation of brown spots and dark, irregular areas on the face. It disappears some time after pregnancy.
Genetic profile, exposure to sunlight, estrogen, taking certain medications, and endocrine disorders can increase the likelihood of developing melasma.
There are different types of melasma:
- Centrofacial melasma: it affects the forehead, chin and upper lip;
- Malar melasma: it is located in the cheeks and nose;
- Mandibular melasma: found on the lower cheeks and jaws.
👉🏾 Do you want to know more about the prevention and treatment of pregnancy masks on black skin? We let you discover this article .
Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or HPI for short, is manifested by more or less dark spots depending on skin tone, after a wound has healed.
It appears next:
- Lesions, inflammations or irritations of the skin (burns, insect bites, micro-injuries, contact eczema, acne);
- Aggressive and unsuitable cosmetic care.
It affects all skin types, but occurs more in people with dull, mixed and dark skin.
It affects the face and body, especially the areas most exposed to the sun.
Handling acne pimples and prolonged exposure to the sun can worsen symptoms of inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
Some studies show that one in two people with acne-prone skin suffer from post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
Lentigo (or lentigines in the plural) is the scientific name given to sun or age spots.
This overproduction of melanin particularly affects the Asian and Caucasian population. It appears on the hands, face, décolleté, shoulders and arms. It is the result of prolonged exposure to the sun and skin aging.
It generally affects people over the age of 40 and concerns more than 90% of individuals over the age of 70.
With age, the skin becomes vulnerable to external aggressions and is no longer able to protect itself from UV rays, responsible for age spots.
Taking certain photosensitizing drugs promotes lentigo.
The different treatments to fight against hyperpigmentation
This process involves exfoliating the skin with an acidic substance. Exfoliation eliminates dead cells from the dermis, stimulates the growth of new cells, treats imperfections and reveals new skin.
The superficial peel
It exfoliates the superficial layers of the dermis. It poses no risk to the skin, but the patient may experience minor redness and irritation. It is forbidden to expose the exfoliated area to the sun for two weeks.
The medium peel
It acts under the stratum corneum of the epidermis and the superficial dermis to treat acne and pigment spots . A week off is to be expected until the skin finishes peeling.
The deep peel
It is used much less than the first two and requires local or general anesthesia. The skin must be prepared before this type of treatment with specific creams. After this type of intervention, the patient must avoid any sun exposure.
The glycolic peel
The glycolic acid peel works well on dark spots . Nevertheless, it is not recommended for dark skin, as it is at risk of inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
The laser and pulsed light
The flash lamp is effective on dark spots for patients with melasma. However, it is possible to notice a reappearance of dark spots after this operation. Depigmented areas may also surface.
The low-energy pigment laser limits side effects. Nevertheless, it is necessary to do several sessions to have convincing results.
Dermocosmetic treatments guarantee long-term results and are much less expensive than all the treatments mentioned above. Compared to aesthetic treatments, its alternatives are ideal.
They are effective for types of hyperpigmentation that affect dark skin: post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and pregnancy mask.
To help you treat hyperpigmentation of the skin effectively, Nubiance offers two ranges.
Anti-dark spot radiance routine
She is composed :
- Micelliance micellar water. It rids the skin of make-up particles and pollution;
- Exfoliating gel with grains and AHAs without Exfoclear soap. It exfoliates the skin and removes dead cells;
- HRB-3 anti-dark spot day care . It reduces dark spots and protects the skin from the sun;
- HRB-3 anti-dark spot night care . It corrects hyperpigmentation overnight and boosts the production of collagen in the skin.
Complete anti-stain range
It involves :
- HRB-3 dark spot radiance serum . It removes stains thanks to its gentle peeling effect;
- HRB-3 anti-dark spot day care . It limits the pigmentation of brown spots by UVA and UVB rays thanks to its SPF30 sun protection;
- HRB-3 anti-dark spot night care. It reduces dark spots and strengthens the skin overnight;
- HRB-3 anti-dark spot body milk . It corrects hyperpigmentation spots present on the body and hydrates the skin thanks to shea butter and glycerin.
👉🏾 To learn more about this theme, you can read our article on the routine to adopt to eradicate black spots !